Odin Gott Odin der Einäugige, sein Selbstopfer am Brunnen der Weisheit (Mimir)
Im deutschen „Mittwoch“ sollte der Name des höchsten germanischen Gottes vielleicht vermieden werden. Darstellung. Odin auf einem Thron sitzend, um n. Der Rabengott auf der Suche nach Erkenntnis. Der mächtige Göttervater zeichnet sich insbesondere durch seine allumfassende Weisheit und seinen großen. Odin ist ein kreativer und weiser Gott und wird als Anführer und oberster Feldherr der Götter gesehen. Frigg / Frija ist Odins Gemahlin. Mit ihr hat er die Söhne. Odin (oder Wotan) ist der Toten- und Kriegsgott, und der Gott der Ekstase. Zum höchsten Gott der Germanischen Mythologie ist Odin vermutlich erst zu Beginn. Odin stellt den Hauptgott der nordischen Mythologie dar. So ist er nicht nur Göttervater, sondern auch Kriegs- und Totengott. Darüber hinaus fungiert er als Gott.
Odin, germanischer Gott: Video, Bilder, Bedeutung, Symbolik, Ikonografie, Riten, Verehrung in Vergangenheit und heute. Odin ist in der germanischen. Odin der „Rabengott“, seine Suche nach Weisheit, Erkenntnis und die Raben Hugin Hier herrscht Odin bzw. der Allvater als oberster Gott der Asen über zwei. Odin (oder Wotan) ist der Toten- und Kriegsgott, und der Gott der Ekstase. Zum höchsten Gott der Germanischen Mythologie ist Odin vermutlich erst zu Beginn.
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He is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry , together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples; some branches focus particularly on him.
More than names are recorded for Odin; the names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with him.
This multitude makes Odin the god with the most known names among the Germanic peoples. In Old High German, the name derived from Odin's was replaced by a translation of Church Latin media hebdomas 'middle of the week' , hence modern German Mittwoch.
The earliest records of the Germanic peoples were recorded by the Romans, and in these works Odin is frequently referred to—via a process known as interpretatio romana where characteristics perceived to be similar by Romans result in identification of a non-Roman god as a Roman deity —as the Roman god Mercury.
The first clear example of this occurs in the Roman historian Tacitus 's late 1st-century work Germania , where, writing about the religion of the Suebi a confederation of Germanic peoples , he comments that "among the gods Mercury is the one they principally worship.
They regard it as a religious duty to offer to him, on fixed days, human as well as other sacrificial victims. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind" and adds that a portion of the Suebi also venerate "Isis".
Anthony Birley noted that Odin's apparent identification with Mercury has little to do with Mercury's classical role of being messenger of the gods, but appears to be due to Mercury's role of psychopomp.
But their rankings in their respective religious spheres may have been very different. Regarding the Germanic peoples, Caesar states: "[T]hey consider the gods only the ones that they can see, the Sun, Fire and the Moon", which scholars reject as clearly mistaken, regardless of what may have led to the statement.
Although the English kingdoms were converted as a result of Christianization of the Germanic peoples by the 7th century, Odin is frequently listed as a founding figure among the Old English royalty.
Odin may also be referenced in the riddle Solomon and Saturn. In the Nine Herbs Charm , Odin is said to have slain a wyrm serpent, European dragon by way of nine "glory twigs".
Preserved from an 11th-century manuscript, the poem is, according to Bill Griffiths, "one of the most enigmatic of Old English texts".
The section that mentions Odin is as follows:. A serpent came crawling but it destroyed no one when Woden took nine twigs of glory, and then struck the adder so that it flew into nine pieces.
There archived apple and poison that it never would re-enter the house. The emendation of nan to 'man' has been proposed.
The next stanza comments on the creation of the herbs chervil and fennel while hanging in heaven by the 'wise lord' witig drihten and before sending them down among mankind.
Regarding this, Griffith comments that "In a Christian context 'hanging in heaven' would refer to the crucifixion ; but remembering that Woden was mentioned a few lines previously there is also a parallel, perhaps a better one, with Odin, as his crucifixion was associated with learning.
The Old English rune poem recounts the Old English runic alphabet, the futhorc. Due to this and the content of the stanzas, several scholars have posited that this poem is censored, having originally referred to Odin.
Woden was equated with Mercury, the god of eloquence among other things. The tales about the Norse god Odin tell how he gave one of his eyes in return for wisdom; he also won the mead of poetic inspiration.
Luckily for Christian rune-masters, the Latin word os could be substituted without ruining the sense, to keep the outward form of the rune name without obviously referring to Woden.
In the poem Solomon and Saturn , "Mercurius the Giant" Mercurius se gygand is referred to as an inventor of letters.
This may also be a reference to Odin, who is in Norse mythology the founder of the runic alphabets, and the gloss a continuation of the practice of equating Odin with Mercury found as early as Tacitus.
The 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum , and Paul the Deacon 's 8th-century Historia Langobardorum derived from it, recount a founding myth of the Langobards Lombards , a Germanic people who ruled a region of the Italian Peninsula.
According to this legend, a "small people" known as the Winnili were ruled by a woman named Gambara who had two sons, Ybor and Aio.
The Vandals , ruled by Ambri and Assi , came to the Winnili with their army and demanded that they pay them tribute or prepare for war.
Ybor, Aio, and their mother Gambara rejected their demands for tribute. Ambri and Assi then asked the god Godan for victory over the Winnili, to which Godan responded in the longer version in the Origo : "Whom I shall first see when at sunrise, to them will I give the victory.
Meanwhile, Ybor and Aio called upon Frea, Godan's wife. Frea counselled them that "at sunrise the Winnil[i] should come, and that their women, with their hair let down around the face in the likeness of a beard should also come with their husbands".
At sunrise, Frea turned Godan's bed around to face east and woke him. Godan saw the Winnili and their whiskered women and asked, "who are those Long-beards?
Godan did so, "so that they should defend themselves according to his counsel and obtain the victory".
Thenceforth the Winnili were known as the Langobards 'long-beards'. Writing in the mid-7th century, Jonas of Bobbio wrote that earlier that century the Irish missionary Columbanus disrupted an offering of beer to Odin vodano " whom others called Mercury " in Swabia.
A 10th-century manuscript found in Merseburg , Germany, features a heathen invocation known as the Second Merseburg Incantation , which calls upon Odin and other gods and goddesses from the continental Germanic pantheon to assist in healing a horse:.
Phol ende uuodan uuoran zi holza. Phol and Woden travelled to the forest. Then was for Baldur 's foal its foot wrenched.
Then encharmed it Sindgund and Sunna her sister, then encharmed it Frija and Volla her sister, then encharmed it Woden , as he the best could, As the bone-wrench, so for the blood wrench, and so the limb-wrench bone to bone, blood to blood, limb to limb, so be glued.
In the 11th century, chronicler Adam of Bremen recorded in a scholion of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum that a statue of Thor, whom Adam describes as "mightiest", sat enthroned in the Temple at Uppsala located in Gamla Uppsala, Sweden flanked by Wodan Odin and " Fricco ".
Regarding Odin, Adam defines him as "frenzy" Wodan, id est furor and says that he "rules war and gives people strength against the enemy" and that the people of the temple depict him as wearing armour, "as our people depict Mars".
In the 12th century, centuries after Norway was "officially" Christianised, Odin was still being invoked by the population, as evidenced by a stick bearing a runic message found among the Bryggen inscriptions in Bergen, Norway.
On the stick, both Thor and Odin are called upon for help; Thor is asked to "receive" the reader, and Odin to "own" them. Odin is mentioned or appears in most poems of the Poetic Edda , compiled in the 13th century from traditional source material reaching back to the pagan period.
The meaning of these gifts has been a matter of scholarly disagreement and translations therefore vary. During this, the first war of the world, Odin flung his spear into the opposing forces of the Vanir.
While the name of the tree is not provided in the poem and other trees exist in Norse mythology, the tree is near universally accepted as the cosmic tree Yggdrasil , and if the tree is Yggdrasil , then the name Yggdrasil Old Norse 'Ygg's steed' directly relates to this story.
Odin is associated with hanging and gallows ; John Lindow comments that "the hanged 'ride' the gallows".
On the mountain Sigurd sees a great light, "as if fire were burning, which blazed up to the sky". Sigurd approaches it, and there he sees a skjaldborg a tactical formation of shield wall with a banner flying overhead.
Sigurd enters the skjaldborg , and sees a warrior lying there—asleep and fully armed. Sigurd removes the helmet of the warrior, and sees the face of a woman.
The woman's corslet is so tight that it seems to have grown into the woman's body. Sigurd uses his sword Gram to cut the corslet, starting from the neck of the corslet downwards, he continues cutting down her sleeves, and takes the corslet off her.
The woman wakes, sits up, looks at Sigurd , and the two converse in two stanzas of verse. In the second stanza, the woman explains that Odin placed a sleeping spell on her which she could not break, and due to that spell she has been asleep a long time.
Sigurd asks for her name, and the woman gives Sigurd a horn of mead to help him retain her words in his memory.
The woman recites a heathen prayer in two stanzas. Odin had promised one of these— Hjalmgunnar —victory in battle, yet she had "brought down" Hjalmgunnar in battle.
Odin pricked her with a sleeping-thorn in consequence, told her that she would never again "fight victoriously in battle", and condemned her to marriage.
Odin is mentioned throughout the books of the Prose Edda , authored by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century and drawing from earlier traditional material.
In the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning chapter 38 , the enthroned figure of High Harr , tells Gangleri king Gylfi in disguise that two ravens named Huginn and Muninn sit on Odin's shoulders.
The ravens tell Odin everything they see and hear. Odin sends Huginn and Muninn out at dawn, and the birds fly all over the world before returning at dinner-time.
As a result, Odin is kept informed of many events. High adds that it is from this association that Odin is referred to as "raven-god".
In the same chapter, the enthroned figure of High explains that Odin gives all of the food on his table to his wolves Geri and Freki and that Odin requires no food, for wine is to him both meat and drink.
Odin is mentioned several times in the sagas that make up Heimskringla. In the Ynglinga saga , the first section of Heimskringla , an euhemerised account of the origin of the gods is provided.
It was the custom there that twelve temple priests were ranked highest; they administered sacrifices and held judgements over men.
Odin was a very successful warrior and travelled widely, conquering many lands. Odin was so successful that he never lost a battle. As a result, according to the saga, men came to believe that "it was granted to him" to win all battles.
Before Odin sent his men to war or to perform tasks for him, he would place his hands upon their heads and give them a bjannak 'blessing', ultimately from Latin benedictio and the men would believe that they would also prevail.
The men placed all of their faith in Odin, and wherever they called his name they would receive assistance from doing so. Odin was often gone for great spans of time.
While Odin was gone, his brothers governed his realm. His brothers began to divvy up Odin's inheritance, "but his wife Frigg they shared between them.
However, afterwards, [Odin] returned and took possession of his wife again". According to the chapter, Odin "made war on the Vanir ".
The Vanir defended their land and the battle turned to a stalemate, both sides having devastated one another's lands.
As part of a peace agreement, the two sides exchanged hostages. In Völsunga saga , the great king Rerir and his wife unnamed are unable to conceive a child; "that lack displeased them both, and they fervently implored the gods that they might have a child.
It is said that Frigg heard their prayers and told Odin what they asked", and the two gods subsequently sent a Valkyrie to present Rerir an apple that falls onto his lap while he sits on a burial mound and Rerir 's wife subsequently becomes pregnant with the namesake of the Völsung family line.
Gestumblindi said:. Heithrek said:. Local folklore and folk practice recognised Odin as late as the 19th century in Scandinavia. In a work published in the midth century, Benjamin Thorpe records that on Gotland , "many traditions and stories of Odin the Old still live in the mouths of the people".
Local legend dictates that after it was opened, "there burst forth a wondrous fire, like a flash of lightning", and that a coffin full of flint and a lamp were excavated.
Thorpe additionally relates that legend has it that a priest who dwelt around Troienborg had once sowed some rye, and that when the rye sprang up, so came Odin riding from the hills each evening.
Odin was so massive that he towered over the farm-yard buildings, spear in hand. Halting before the entry way, he kept all from entering or leaving all night, which occurred every night until the rye was cut.
Thorpe notes that numerous other traditions existed in Sweden at the time of his writing. Thorpe records that in Sweden, "when a noise, like that of carriages and horses, is heard by night, the people say: 'Odin is passing by'".
References to or depictions of Odin appear on numerous objects. Migration Period 5th and 6th century CE gold bracteates types A, B, and C feature a depiction of a human figure above a horse, holding a spear and flanked by one or more often two birds.
The presence of the birds has led to the iconographic identification of the human figure as the god Odin, flanked by Huginn and Muninn. Like Snorri 's Prose Edda description of the ravens, a bird is sometimes depicted at the ear of the human, or at the ear of the horse.
Bracteates have been found in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and, in smaller numbers, England and areas south of Denmark. Vendel Period helmet plates from the 6th or 7th century found in a grave in Sweden depict a helmeted figure holding a spear and a shield while riding a horse, flanked by two birds.
The plate has been interpreted as Odin accompanied by two birds; his ravens. Two of the 8th century picture stones from the island of Gotland, Sweden depict eight-legged horses, which are thought by most scholars to depict Sleipnir : the [[Tjängvide image stone Tjängvide image stone]] and the Ardre VIII image stone.
Both stones feature a rider sitting atop an eight-legged horse, which some scholars view as Odin. Above the rider on the Tjängvide image stone is a horizontal figure holding a spear, which may be a valkyrie, and a female figure greets the rider with a cup.
The scene has been interpreted as a rider arriving at the world of the dead. The back of each bird features a mask-motif, and the feet of the birds are shaped like the heads of animals.
The feathers of the birds are also composed of animal-heads. Together, the animal-heads on the feathers form a mask on the back of the bird.
The birds have powerful beaks and fan-shaped tails, indicating that they are ravens. The brooches were intended to be worn on each shoulder, after Germanic Iron Age fashion.
Petersen notes that "raven-shaped ornaments worn as a pair, after the fashion of the day, one on each shoulder, makes one's thoughts turn towards Odin's ravens and the cult of Odin in the Germanic Iron Age.
The Oseberg tapestry fragments , discovered within the Viking Age Oseberg ship burial in Norway, features a scene containing two black birds hovering over a horse, possibly originally leading a wagon as a part of a procession of horse-led wagons on the tapestry.
In her examination of the tapestry, scholar Anne Stine Ingstad interprets these birds as Huginn and Muninn flying over a covered cart containing an image of Odin, drawing comparison to the images of Nerthus attested by Tacitus in 1 CE.
Excavations in Ribe , Denmark have recovered a Viking Age lead metal-caster's mould and 11 identical casting-moulds. These objects depict a moustached man wearing a helmet that features two head-ornaments.
Archaeologist Stig Jensen proposes these head-ornaments should be interpreted as Huginn and Muninn, and the wearer as Odin.
He notes that "similar depictions occur everywhere the Vikings went—from eastern England to Russia and naturally also in the rest of Scandinavia. A portion of Thorwald's Cross a partly surviving runestone erected at Kirk Andreas on the Isle of Man depicts a bearded human holding a spear downward at a wolf, his right foot in its mouth, and a large bird on his shoulder.
The 11th century Ledberg stone in Sweden, similarly to Thorwald's Cross, features a figure with his foot at the mouth of a four-legged beast, and this may also be a depiction of Odin being devoured by Fenrir at Ragnarök.
Odin ist Sohn des Urriesenpaares Borr und Bestla. Er hat zwei Brüder, Hönir und Lodur bzw. Vili und Ve. Seine Frau ist Frigg.
Drei Höfe bewohnt Odin. Den mit Silber eingedeckten Walaskjalf , den "der Ase sich in Urtagen wirkte", Kleinodbank , wo Odin mit der Saga täglich aus Goldbechern trinkt und Fronheim , in der sich die goldene Walhall dehnt.
Von seinem Thron Hlidskialf aus überblickt Odin die gesamte Welt. Seinen Reichtum verdankt er seinem goldenen Ring Draupnir , der sich ständig vermehrt.
Im Kampf verlässt er sich auf den Speer Gungnir , der stets sein Ziel erreicht. Seine häufigen Reisen führten ihn zum Grund von Wissen und Weisheit, dabei verwendete er etliche Decknamen.
Hier am Weltenbaum opfert er sich selbst sich selbst. Rufend nimmt er die Runen auf und kommt, auferstehend, vom Baum los. Nun verpfändet er seinem Onkel, dem Riesen Mimir , eines seiner Augen, um aus dessen Weisheitsbrunnen den Met Odrörir trinken zu dürfen Wie viele Seher wird auch Odin mit eingeschränkter optischer Sehkraft geschildert.
Um auf diese Schlacht vorbereitet zu sein, holt er seitdem die tapfersten der auf der Walstatt Schlachtfeld verbliebenen Krieger, die Einherier , zu sich nach Walhall.
So zieht er durch die Welt, besucht seine Schützlinge, sät Zwietracht und entzieht den Seinen - menschlich gedacht - im entscheidenden Moment seine Gunst, um, endlich und vergeblich, ein starkes Heer zu befehligen, das auf der Ebene Vigrid die letzte Schlacht schlagen wird.
Zum Beispiel brachte Odin dem mythischen Dänenkönig Harald Kriegsgeschick bei und führte ihn zu zahlreichen militärischen Erfolgen. Dann aber fuhr den König sein eigener Wagenlenker in den Tod.
Von Freyja verlangt er, zwischen zwei Königen tödlichen Hass zu säen. Es kommt zur gewünschten Schlacht und die Walküren bringen Odin reiche Ernte ein.
Odin wurde weithin verehrt, in Mitteleuropa als Wuotan.