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Interlingue ist eine Plansprache. Sie wurde unter dem Namen Occidental von dem Deutsch-Balten Edgar von Wahl veröffentlicht. Sie nimmt eine. Interlingue ist eine Plansprache. Sie wurde unter dem Namen Occidental von dem Deutsch-Balten Edgar von Wahl veröffentlicht. Sie nimmt eine vermittelnde Stellung zwischen sogenannten naturalistischen und schematischen Plansprachen ein. BENEVENIT IN LI MUNDE DE INTERLINGUE! Nov: Li Wikipedia in Interlingue have articules. Nov: Traduction del famosi novelle Li Litt Prince de Antoine. Interlingue-Occidental Diese Internationale Plansprache wurde von dem Baltendeutschen Edgar von Wahl entwickelt. Er stellte sein Projekt in einer. Interlingue ist eine unter dem Namen Occidental von dem Deutsch-Balten Edgar von Wahl vorgestellte Plansprache. Sie ist nicht zu verwechseln mit.
Interlingue ist eine Plansprache. Sie wurde unter dem Namen Occidental von dem Deutsch-Balten Edgar von Wahl veröffentlicht. Sie nimmt eine vermittelnde Stellung zwischen sogenannten naturalistischen und schematischen Plansprachen ein. Interlingue. Interlingue ist eine Plansprache. Sie wurde unter dem Namen Occidental von dem Deutsch-Balten Edgar von Wahl veröffentlicht. Sie nimmt. Interlingue-Occidental Diese Internationale Plansprache wurde von dem Baltendeutschen Edgar von Wahl entwickelt. Er stellte sein Projekt in einer.
Chascun posse utilisar e mis-utilisar it por chascun ideologie. Por evitar nov dissectiones a diversi fractiones in li Movement Mundlingual, on provat aproximar a unaltru li du lingue-projectes, queles ya esset tre simil.
Ma in facte un fusion del du lingue ne evenit. Li basic diferentie inter ambi es li facte, que IALA-Interlingua, altri quam Interlingue-Occidental, in su essentie es conceptionat quam summa del elementes comun inter li lingues sud-romanic Portuguesi, Hispan, Italian , ma ne oferta un metode a un plu profund structurisation, quel vell far possibil a homes, queles parla null de ti lingues, rapid e bon aprender it.
Il restat esperantist til quande it dessuccessat li vote per reformar li esperanto, un votation in le qual de Wahl esset un del du qui votat ni lassar li esperanto sin modification ni per li reforma proposit per Zamenhof, ma per un reforma completmen nove.
In li opinion de de Wahl it esset sempre preferibil optar per un sufixe productiv quam necessitar li creation de paroles nove con radices nove. In un articul pri li futur developation del lingue, de Wahl scrit in que por li domination europan in li scienties e altri areas, li Occidental necessitar un forma e derivation reconossibil al europanes, ma que anc devet haver un structura grammatical capabil de prender formes plu analitic e nonderivat in li futur si li tendenties linguistic mundal comensat a monstrar un preferentie per les.
Anc, ci li solution real va esser li harmonisation del du principles contrari. Durante que it es principalmen romanic in vocabularium, de Wahl optat per un subtracte germanic quel il credet que esset plu expressiv per vocabularium tecnical e material self, ost, svimmar, moss, etc.
Lingues romanic minoritari quam li ladin, provencal occitan e catalan junct con creoles hat un grand importantie in li developation de Occidental per de Wahl, qui scrit in que su lingue in developation esset plu simil a provencal ca italian o hispan.
Usante prefixes e suffixes reconosset internationalmen ne significat importar paroles international complet. Ma ante li comense del Duesim Guerre Mundal, de Wahl dicet que li criticas a Occidental esset infundat, declarant que usatores anglesi e francesi in particular havet li tendentie de vider Occidental quam un mixation de ambi: " Li apparentie caotic de Occidental ne es li defecte de Occidental mem, ma plutost quel de su usatores e specialmen li franceses e angleses, o queles que pensa que li lingue international deve esser un mixation de ti du lingues The first support was Thorndike's paper; the second was a concession by proponents of the systematic languages that thousands of words were already present in many, or even a majority, of the European languages.
Their argument was that systematic derivation of words was a Procrustean bed , forcing the learner to unlearn and re-memorize a new derivation scheme when a usable vocabulary was already available.
This finally convinced supporters of the systematic languages, and IALA from that point assumed the position that a naturalistic language would be best.
Clark Stillman established a new research staff. During this period IALA continued to develop models and conducted polling to determine the optimal form of the final language.
In , IALA sent an extensive survey to more than 3, language teachers and related professionals on three continents. Four models were canvassed: .
The results of the survey were striking. The two more schematic models were rejected — K overwhelmingly. Of the two naturalistic models, M received somewhat more support than P.
Martinet took up a position at Columbia University in , and Gode took on the last phase of Interlingua's development. Interlingua as presented by the IALA is very close to Peano's Interlingua Latino sine flexione , both in its grammar and especially in its vocabulary.
Accordingly, the very name "Interlingua" was kept, yet a distinct abbreviation was adopted: IA instead of IL.
An early practical application of Interlingua was the scientific newsletter Spectroscopia Molecular , published from to Within a few years, it found similar use at nine further medical congresses.
Between the mids and the late s, some thirty scientific and especially medical journals provided article summaries in Interlingua. Science Service , the publisher of Science Newsletter at the time, published a monthly column in Interlingua from the early s until Gode's death in In , the International Organization for Standardization , which normalizes terminology, voted almost unanimously to adopt Interlingua as the basis for its dictionaries.
The IALA closed its doors in but was not formally dissolved until or later. Blair , Gode's close friend and colleague, became his assistant.
The new institute supported the work of other linguistic organizations, made considerable scholarly contributions and produced Interlingua summaries for scholarly and medical publications.
One of its largest achievements was two immense volumes on phytopathology produced by the American Phytopathological Society in and Interlingua had attracted many former adherents of other international-language projects, notably Occidental and Ido.
Beginning in the s, UMI has held international conferences every two years typical attendance at the earlier meetings was 50 to and launched a publishing programme that eventually produced over volumes.
Other Interlingua-language works were published by university presses in Sweden and Italy , and in the s, Brazil and Switzerland.
In , the Interlingua Institute was dissolved amid funding disputes with the UMI; the American Interlingua Society, established the following year, succeeded the institute and responded to new interest emerging in Mexico.
Interlingua was spoken and promoted in the Soviet bloc , despite attempts to suppress the language.
Today, [ when? Individuals, governments, and private companies use Interlingua for learning and instruction, travel, online publishing, and communication across language barriers.
Periodicals and books are produced by many national organizations, such as the Societate American pro Interlingua , the Svenska Sällskapet för Interlingua , and the Union Brazilian pro Interlingua.
It is not certain how many people have an active knowledge of Interlingua. As noted above, Interlingua is claimed to be the most widely spoken naturalistic auxiliary language.
Interlingua's greatest advantage is that it is the most widely understood international auxiliary language besides Interlingua IL de A.
Interlingua has active speakers on all continents, especially in South America and in Eastern and Northern Europe , most notably Scandinavia ; also in Russia and Ukraine.
There are copious Interlingua web pages,  including editions of Wikipedia and Wiktionary , and a number of periodicals, including Panorama in Interlingua from the Union Mundial pro Interlingua UMI and magazines of the national societies allied with it.
There are several active mailing lists, and Interlingua is also in use in certain Usenet newsgroups, particularly in the europa.
Interlingua is presented on CDs, radio, and television. Interlingua is taught in many high schools and universities, sometimes as a means of teaching other languages quickly, presenting interlinguistics , or introducing the international vocabulary.
Every two years, the UMI organizes an international conference in a different country. In the year between, the Scandinavian Interlingua societies co-organize a conference in Sweden.
National organizations such as the Union Brazilian pro Interlingua also organize regular conferences. As of [update] , Google Keyboard supports Interlingua.
Interlingua has a largely phonemic orthography. Interlingua uses the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet with no diacritics.
Interlingua is primarily a written language, and the pronunciation is not entirely settled. The sounds in parentheses are not used by all speakers. For the most part, consonants are pronounced as in English, while the vowels are like Spanish.
Written double consonants may be geminated as in Italian for extra clarity or pronounced as single as in English or French. The general rule is that stress falls on the vowel before the last consonant e.
There are a few exceptions, and the following rules account for most of them:. Speakers may pronounce all words according to the general rule mentioned above.
For example, kilom e tro is acceptable, although kil o metro is more common. Interlingua has no explicitly defined phonotactics. However, the prototyping procedure for determining Interlingua words, which strives for internationality, should in general lead naturally to words that are easy for most learners to pronounce.
In the process of forming new words, an ending cannot always be added without a modification of some kind in between. A good example is the plural -s , which is always preceded by a vowel to prevent the occurrence of a hard-to-pronounce consonant cluster at the end.
If the singular does not end in a vowel, the final -s becomes -es. Unassimilated foreign loanwords , or borrowed words, are spelled as in their language of origin.
Their spelling may contain diacritics , or accent marks. If the diacritics do not affect pronunciation, they are removed.
Words in Interlingua may be taken from any language,  as long as their internationality is verified by their presence in seven control languages: Spanish , Portuguese , Italian , French , and English , with German and Russian acting as secondary controls.
These are the most widely spoken Romance , Germanic , and Slavic languages , respectively. Because of their close relationship, Spanish and Portuguese are treated as one unit.
The largest number of Interlingua words are of Latin origin, with the Greek and Germanic languages providing the second and third largest number.
The remainder of the vocabulary originates in Slavic and non- Indo-European languages. A word, that is a form with meaning, is eligible for the Interlingua vocabulary if it is verified by at least three of the four primary control languages.
Either secondary control language can substitute for a primary language. Any word of Indo-European origin found in a control language can contribute to the eligibility of an international word.
A word can be potentially present in a language when a derivative is present, but the word itself is not. English proximity , for example, gives support to Interlingua proxime , meaning 'near, close'.
This counts as long as one or more control languages actually have this basic root word, which the Romance languages all do. Potentiality also occurs when a concept is represented as a compound or derivative in a control language, the morphemes that make it up are themselves international, and the combination adequately conveys the meaning of the larger word.
An example is Italian fiammifero lit. This word is thus said to be potentially present in the other languages although they may represent the meaning with a single morpheme.
Words do not enter the Interlingua vocabulary solely because cognates exist in a sufficient number of languages. If their meanings have become different over time , they are considered different words for the purpose of Interlingua eligibility.
If they still have one or more meanings in common, however, the word can enter Interlingua with this smaller set of meanings. If this procedure did not produce an international word, the word for a concept was originally taken from Latin see below.
This only occurred with a few grammatical particles. The form of an Interlingua word is considered an international prototype with respect to the other words.
On the one hand, it should be neutral, free from characteristics peculiar to one language. On the other hand, it should maximally capture the characteristics common to all contributing languages.
As a result, it can be transformed into any of the contributing variants using only these language-specific characteristics. The language-specific characteristics are closely related to the sound laws of the individual languages; the resulting words are often close or even identical to the most recent form common to the contributing words.
No debe confundirse con interlingue. Declaration Universal del Derectos Human Articulo 1 Tote le esseres human nasce libere e equal in dignitate e in derectos.
Illes es dotate de ration e de conscientia, e debe comportar se fraternalmente le unes con le alteres. International languages: a matter for interlingua.
Sheffield , England : British Interlingua Society. Consultado el 7 de abril de Esta lengua tiene su propia Wikipedia. Puedes visitarla y contribuir en Wikipedia en interlingua.
Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons Wikilibros.
Interlingue SuchformularIntercal: Wörter werden auf dem Vokal vor dem letzten Konsonanten im Allgemeinen betont arpar olfür mich. Ric Berger, Fred Lagnel und Dr. Von Meter an herrscht im Weltmeer völlige Finsternis. Einige grammatischen Endungen sind:. Bearbeitungszeit: Interlingue. Komparativ mit pluSuperlativ mit max: plu grand, max grand. Wenn das Verb nicht durch die Hilfsverben var Zukunft oder fer Vergangenheit festgelegt wird, wird Gegenwart angenommen: Yo ama — Ich liebe; yo va amar — Nodepositbonusblog 2 werde lieben; yo fe Lotto 1 Zahl Richtig — ich liebte. Also, there are political Videospiele 80er cultural objections to granting any Guardiola Vertrag language the status of world interlingua. Nicht zu verwechseln mit Interlingua oder Okzitanisch. Welthilfssprache. Beispiele:  Interlingue ist eine ältere Plansprache aus und nicht identisch mit der Plansprache Interlingua aus dem Jahre Interlingue. Interlingue ist eine Plansprache. Sie wurde unter dem Namen Occidental von dem Deutsch-Balten Edgar von Wahl veröffentlicht. Sie nimmt. Die Sprache Interlingue, zuvor Occidental, ist eine geplante internationale Hilfssprache durch die Balto-deutschen Marineoffizier und Lehrer geschaffen Edgar. Interlingue beim Online Wögrootgenoegen.be: ✓ Bedeutung, ✓ Definition, ✓ Synonyme, ✓ Rechtschreibung, ✓ Silbentrennung. Scuola di lingue, ufficio traduzioni. Formazione ponte: lingue e commercio per adulti e giovani. Soggiorni linguistici. Free test online. A Lugano dal
Interlingue VideoLearn Interlingue Lesson 1 Greetings After the standardization of Occidental in Games Bowman the name change to Interlingue in there was a push towards greater and greater naturalistic forms  inspired by the IALA's soon-to-be-published Interlingua, particularly by Ric Berger who advocated replacing the optional -i adjectival ending with -e. The co-founder of the IALA Alice Vanderbilt Morris was an Esperantist, as were many of its staff members,  and many Occidentalists including Edgar de Wahl himself believed that it had been set up Kostenlose Bagger Spiele eventually recommend Esperanto over other planned languages under a neutral and scientific pretext using its staff of Asteroids Online Game linguists to bolster a final recommendation. The application of de Wahl's rule to verbs and the usage Ladbrokes Fixed Odds Coupon numerous suffixes and prefixes was created to resolve irregularities that had plagued creators of language projects before Occidental, who were forced to make the choice between regularity and innatural forms, or irregularity and natural forms. As a result, it can be transformed into any of the contributing Windows Mobile Games using only these language-specific characteristics. Someone who like M. During the war years, proponents of Slot Machine Gewinnen naturalistic interlanguage won out. In the object form the pronouns are: me, te, le, la, it, nos, vosAnimam Jam les with los and las as specific masculine and feminine forms, respectively. One of its largest achievements was two immense volumes on phytopathology produced by the American Phytopathological Society in and Language Problems and Language Planning. The verb ear to Samsung Apk Download may be used Zdf Heute 20 15 emphasize the continuity of a verb: li dom ea constructet the house is being built. Pferd Schach grammatical endings are:. The IALA Spanien Primera Division its doors in but was not formally dissolved until or later. There are four simple tenses present, Slot Machine Gewinnen, future, and conditionalthree compound tenses Skat Download Kostenlos Windows 7, future, and conditionaland the passive voice.
The activities of Occidental and its users can be seen through the magazine Cosmoglotta, which began publication in in Tallinn, Estonia under the name Kosmoglott.
The language that de Wahl announced that year was a product of years of personal experimentation under the name Auli auxiliary language , which he used during the period from to and which later on gained the nickname proto-Occidental.
I understand that quite well, because I am starting it right from the other end. I do not begin with the alphabet and the grammar and then have to adopt the vocabulary to it, but just the other way around: I take all international material of words, suffixes, endings, grammatical forms etc.
Occidental was announced in at a stage of near but not total completion. Occidental began gathering followers despite a complete lack of grammars and dictionaries  due to its readability.
Two years later in , de Wahl wrote that he was in correspondence with some 30 people  "in good Occidental" despite the lack of learning material.
The first dictionary was published the next year in , the radicarium directiv  which was a collection of Occidental root words and their equivalents in 8 languages.
For a number of years Kosmoglott was a forum for various other planned languages, while still mainly written in Occidental. Until the magazine was also affiliated with the Academia pro Interlingua ,  which promoted Peano's Latino sine flexione.
In the name was changed to Cosmoglotta as it began to officially promote Occidental in lieu of other languages,  and in January of the same year  the magazine's editorial and administrative office was moved to Vienna, Austria in the region of Mauer , now part of Liesing.
Much of the early success for Occidental in this period came from the office's new central location, along with the efforts of Engelbert Pigal , also from Austria, whose article Li Ovre de Edgar de Wahl The Work of Edgar de Wahl led to interest in Occidental from users of the Ido language.
Besides the new location in a city much closer to the centre of Europe, the Vienna period was also marked by financial stability for the first time due to the support from a number of backers, particularly Hans Hörbiger , also from Vienna, and G.
Moore from London, from which "Cosmoglotta was able to live without difficulty and gained a circle of readers despite the economic crisis".
The growing Occidental movement began a more assertive campaign for the language in the early s,  leveraging its at-sight readability by contacting organizations such as embassies, printing houses and the League of Nations using letters in Occidental that were often understood and responded to in the organization's own working language ,  usually including the phrasing below: Scrit in lingue international "Occidental" "Written in the international language Occidental".
A large number of numbered "documents"  were produced at this time as well to introduce the concept of an international language and advocate Occidental as the answer to Europe's "tower of Babel".
The years from to were particularly active for Cosmoglotta, during which a second edition was produced along with the original Cosmoglotta.
Originally entitled Cosmoglotta-Informationes , it soon began using the name Cosmoglotta B and focused on items of more internal interest such as linguistic issues, reports of Occidental in the news, and financial updates.
In early , not counting the issues of Cosmoglotta and any other journals and bulletins, a total of 80 publications   existed in and about Occidental.
At the same time, the years leading up to the Second World War led to difficulties for Occidental and other planned languages which were made illegal in Germany  along with Austria  and Czechoslovakia, forced to disband,  kept under Gestapo surveillance,  and had their didactic materials destroyed.
No communication took place between Edgar de Wahl in Tallinn and the Occidental Union in Switzerland from to October ,  first due to the war itself and thereafter from intercepted mail between Switzerland and the Soviet Union, which bewildered de Wahl who had sent multiple letters and even a large collection of translated poetry into Occidental which were never delivered.
Meanwhile, de Wahl's house and his entire library had been destroyed during the bombardment of Tallinn and de Wahl himself was incarcerated for a time after refusing to leave Estonia for Germany .
In no issues of either Cosmoglotta were produced, but in Cosmoglotta B began publication once again and continued until One of these activities was language standardization.
De Wahl had created Occidental with a number of unchangeable features, but believed that its following of the "laws of life" gave it a firm enough base that it could follow a "natural evolution" with a flexibility which would "allow time and practice to take care of modifications that would prove to be necessary" .
As a result, some words had more than one permissible form and could not be resolved by decree alone, thus leaving the ultimate decision to the community by including both possible forms in the first Occidental dictionaries.
De Wahl expressed a preference for scrir , finding scripter to be somewhat heavy, but commented that scripter was certainly permissible and that Occidental might take on a similar evolution to natural languages  where both forms come into common use, with the longer and more Latin-like form having a heavier and more formal character and the shorter a lighter and more everyday tone such as English story vs.
The decision over etymologic vs. Much of Occidental's vocabulary was solved in this way e. With questions still remaining about the official form of some words and a lack of general material destined for the general public,  much time during World War II was spent on language standardization and course creation, and in August the decision was made, given the length of the war, to create an interim academy to officialize this process.
While doing so, they frequently found themselves confronted with the decision between two forms that had remained in popular usage, but which could be confusing to a new learner of the language.
One only standardizes solutions that have already been sanctioned through practice. During the war, Occidentalists noticed that the language was frequently permitted to be sent by telegram within and outside of Switzerland especially to and from Sweden  even without official recognition, surmising that censors were able to understand it  and may have thought them to be written in Spanish or Romansch ,  a minor yet official language in Switzerland that at the time lacked a standardized orthography.
This allowed a certain amount of communication to take place between the Occidentalists in Switzerland and Sweden. The other centres of Occidental activity in Europe did not fare as well, with the stocks of study materials in Vienna and Tallinn having been destroyed in bombings  and numerous Occidentalists sent to concentration camps   in Germany and Czechoslovakia.
Contacts were reestablished shortly after the war by those who had survived it, particularly from those in France, Czechoslovakia, and Great Britain.
The International Auxiliary Language Association, founded in to study and determine the best planned language for international communication, was at first viewed with suspicion by the Occidental community.
The co-founder of the IALA Alice Vanderbilt Morris was an Esperantist, as were many of its staff members,  and many Occidentalists including Edgar de Wahl himself believed that it had been set up to eventually recommend Esperanto over other planned languages under a neutral and scientific pretext using its staff of professional linguists to bolster a final recommendation.
Relations soon improved, however, as it became clear that the IALA intended to be as impartial as possible by familiarizing itself with all existing planned languages.
Ric Berger detailed one visit he made in to Morris whose husband was the US ambassador in Brussels that vastly improved his opinion of the organization:.
My personal opinion was not so pessimistic, for, finding myself in Brussels in , I sought out Mrs. Morris and soon obtained an audience with her where my charming host invited me to speak in Occidental.
She asked her husband, the American ambassador, to come hear me to confirm what seemed to very much interest them: a language in which all words can be understood without having learned it!
Morris could have used her fortune to simply support Esperanto, which was her right as a convicted Esperantist. But instead of that she As a result, opinions of the IALA and its activities in the Occidental community began to improve and reports on its activities in Cosmoglotta became increasingly positive.
In the IALA announced that it planned to create its own language and showed four possible versions under consideration, all of which were naturalistic  as opposed to schematic.
Occidentalists were by and large pleased that the IALA had decided to create a language so similar in appearance to Occidental, seeing it as a credible association that gave weight to their argument that an auxiliary language should proceed from study of natural languages instead of attempting to fit them into an artificial system.
Ric Berger was particularly positive about the IALA's new language, calling it in "almost the same language",  though not without reservations, doubting whether a project with such a similar outward appearance would be able to "suddenly cause prejudices [against planned languages] to fall and create unity among the partisans of international languages"  and fearing that it might simply "disperse the partisans of the natural language with nothing to show for it"  after Occidental had created "unity in the naturalistic school" for so long.
Occidental with De Wahl's Rule had either done away with Latin double stem verbs verbs such as act: ager , act - or send: mitter , miss - or found a way to work around them, while Interlingua simply accepted them as part and parcel of a naturalistic system.
The control languages English, French, Italian, Spanish-Portuguese used by Interlingua to form its vocabulary also conflicted with Occidental's Germanic and other words which would be by definition ineligible in a combined language that retained Interlingua's methodology.
Occidental words such as mann, strax, old, sestra, clocca, svimmar, trincar , etc. Interlingua also allowed optional verbal conjugations such as so, son and sia  as the first-person singular, third-person plural and subjunctive form of esser , the verb 'to be' that Occidental had never even considered and viewed as incompatible with an easy international auxiliary language.
Meanwhile, Cosmoglotta was showing financial strain with inflated printing costs after the end of World War II and the inability to collect payments from certain countries,  a marked contrast to the well-funded IALA which had been based in New York since the outbreak of the war.
The beginning of the Cold War in created a particularly uncomfortable situation for the Occidental-Union, which now possessed a name that by chance coincided with that of an anti-Russian political league,  and which the Occidentalists in Switzerland believed to be the reason for the interception of all of de Wahl's letters sent from Tallinn.
In early the Czechoslovak Occidentalists had begun requesting approval for a new name that would allow them to continue their linguistic activities without suspicion, proposing the name Interal Inter national a uxiliari l ingue , to which the union responded that the term Interlingue would be more appropriate and that they were free to introduce the language as Interlingue Occidental , or even remove the mention of Occidental in parentheses if they felt it necessary.
The year when Interlingua was announced was consequential in weakening Interlingue-Occidental, which until then had been unchallenged in the field of naturalistic planned auxiliary languages.
This applied to Interlingua as well, but it carried with it a dictionary of 27 words put together by professional linguists that brought great respect, despite in principle only confirming the path that De Wahl had started.
The first proposition was not accepted, but the second was, giving a practical collaboration and support to Interlingua. He confessed that his preferred variant of Interlingua was the one closer to Interlingue than the one officialized by Gode.
His heresy caused doubt and interruptions in Interlingue circles, especially after he became involved in the publication of "Revista de Interlingua".
The former idea of a natural fusion of both languages was shown to be unrealistic, with the new language becoming a rival.
While the migration of so many users to Interlingua had severely weakened the Interlingue movement, the remaining users of the language kept the language alive for a time.
Besides Cosmoglotta, now publishing once every second month from and then once per quarter from , bulletins in Interlingue continued to appear such as Interlingue-Postillon , Germany , Novas de Oriente , Japan , Amicitie european , Switzerland , Teorie e practica Switzerland-Czechoslovakia, , and Novas in Interlingue Czechoslovakia, According to Esperantist Don Harlow, "in Occidental's last periodical, Cosmoglotta, ceased publication, and its editor, Mr.
Adrian Pilgrim, is quoted as having described Occidental as a "dead language. In the year the first Yahoo! Group in Occidental was founded,  and Cosmoglotta had been publishing intermittently again.
An Interlingue Wikipedia was approved in In recent years official meetings between Interlingue speakers have begun taking place again: a meeting in Ulm on 10 January ,  another in Munich in with three participants,  and a third in Ulm on 16 August with five.
The most recent edition of the magazine Cosmoglotta is volume , for the period January to December One of the earliest users of the language Esperanto, Edgar de Wahl encountered it for the first time in  and remained a fervent supporter of the language for a number of years where he collaborated with Zamenhof on the design of the language and translated one of the first works into Esperanto: "Princidino Mary", published in originally under the name Princino Mary.
He remained an Esperantist until when the vote to reform Esperanto failed, a vote in which de Wahl was one of just two that voted neither for Esperanto unchanged, nor for the reform proposed by Zamenhof, but for a completely new reform.
De Wahl's method for doing so was twofold: through de Wahl's Rule to reduce the number of irregularities in verbal derivation to a minimum, and a large number of affixes to do the same with word roots in addition to giving the resulting forms a natural appearance.
The large number of suffixes can be seen through a glimpse of just those used to form nouns referring to a type of person: -er- molinero - miller , -or- redactor - editor , -ari- millionario - millionaire , -on- spion , spy , -ard mentard , liar , -astr- poetastro , lousy poet , -es franceso , Frenchman , -essa reyessa , queen.
In de Wahl's opinion it was always preferable to opt for a productive suffix than to be forced to coin new words from completely new radicals later on.
De Wahl published in a modification of Otto Jespersen 's principle that "the best language is that which is easiest for the greatest number of people",  stating that the international language should be easiest for the majority of those who need it lit.
And the more mutilated the words are, the more mutilated will be the ideas that they represent. On the subject of schematic regularity versus naturalism in an international language, De Wahl believed that there was a fine balance to be maintained between the two, where too much of the former may be convenient for the early learner but abhorrent for a speaker, and vice versa in the latter case: "Exceptions are not made to make study more difficult for foreigners, but to make speaking shorter and more fluid It is clear that in this language as the most impersonal, abstract and businesslike one of all, regularity will be greater and more expanded than in all other national and tribal languages and idioms.
But it will never be able to attain a total schematism Also here the real solution will be a harmonization of the two contrary principles.
It requires the sensitive penetration of the real necessity in the instinct of the international superpopulation.
While primarily Romance in vocabulary, de Wahl opted for a large Germanic substrate which he felt more expressive for technical and material vocabulary self , ost for east, svimmar for to swim, moss , etc.
The Swiss magazine Landbote made a similar comment in in a review of the language, commenting humoristically that "reading through the few examples of Occidental gives us the impression of a half-learned Catalan by a foreigner who doesn't much understand the grammar.
Using internationally recognized prefixes and suffixes did not imply wholesale importing of international words. Just before the beginning of the Second World War de Wahl called criticisms of Occidental as chaotic unfounded, stating that English and French users in particular had a tendency to see Occidental as a mix of the two: " Occidental's chaotic appearance is not the fault of Occidental itself, but rather that of its users and especially the French and English, or those that think that the international language should be a mixture of those two languages After the standardization of Occidental in and the name change to Interlingue in there was a push towards greater and greater naturalistic forms  inspired by the IALA's soon-to-be-published Interlingua, particularly by Ric Berger who advocated replacing the optional -i adjectival ending with -e.
Usante prefixes e suffixes reconosset internationalmen ne significat importar paroles international complet. Ma ante li comense del Duesim Guerre Mundal, de Wahl dicet que li criticas a Occidental esset infundat, declarant que usatores anglesi e francesi in particular havet li tendentie de vider Occidental quam un mixation de ambi: " Li apparentie caotic de Occidental ne es li defecte de Occidental mem, ma plutost quel de su usatores e specialmen li franceses e angleses, o queles que pensa que li lingue international deve esser un mixation de ti du lingues To es un del differenties principal con Interlingua, qual have un vocabularium prendet del nominat "prototipes" li antecessor max recent de su lingues fonte durante que Occidental centrat in derivation activ.
Pos li standarisation de Occidental in e li cambio de nomine a Interlingue in it existet un pussa vers formas plu naturalistic inspirat per Interlingue, particularmen per Ric Berger, ci defendet li replazzament del finition adjectival optional -i con -e.
Pos defender li cambio in april , il comensat implementar it in li mensu sequent in su propri scrituras e plu del contenete de Cosmoglotta, junct con altri cambios quam nostre e vostre in loc de nor e vor.
Ca ti cambios experimental vell haver radicat ne es conosset, proque Berger abandonat su position quam editor de Cosmoglotta bentost plu tard e finalmen se unit a Interlingua, durante que Cosmoglotta retornat a publicar in li standard de quel continua hodie.
Pos un plurale li possessives posse prender un -s: mi pom es ci; li mi s es ci. Lor libres ha arivat; li lor es ha arivat.
Li conjugation es regulari. It existe solmen un conjugation con quar formes. Exemplification per li verbe amar :. Remarca: Si li tema fini in -i , on intermette un -e- : fini-e-nt , audi-e-nt , veni-e-nt , mori-e-nt.
Para el idioma artificial creado por G. No debe confundirse con interlingue. Declaration Universal del Derectos Human Articulo 1 Tote le esseres human nasce libere e equal in dignitate e in derectos.
Illes es dotate de ration e de conscientia, e debe comportar se fraternalmente le unes con le alteres. International languages: a matter for interlingua.
Sheffield , England : British Interlingua Society. Consultado el 7 de abril de Esta lengua tiene su propia Wikipedia. Puedes visitarla y contribuir en Wikipedia en interlingua.
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